what is the best row spacing for soybeans

While narrow-row soybeans will compete more effectively with weeds, row spacing should not be so narrow as to prevent between-row cultivation. Most corn planters are set to plant 30-inch rows, and 15-inch soybeans are generally planted by using split-row units placed between the 30-inch rows. rows. Agronomy Journal 100:704-710. Generally, there is not much yield difference between 7.5-inch and 15-inch row spacing. Corn planted in twin rows should have uniform triangular spacing. Row spacing. One option is to invest in a split-row planter, which works with both corn and soybean for the appropriate row spacing needed for each crop. Add 000, as all counts are in thousands. Skip row soybeans. is relatively lower in the central-western areas. In fact, white mold may be more problematic in narrow row soybeans. How to limit soil compaction. Two Nebraska On-Farm Research data-intensive management studies in 2018 showed no statistical yield difference in see… Soybeans can be susceptible to disease, with their closed canopy creating a humid microclimate. Rapid canopy closure can also help reduce soil moisture loss and erosion. In most cases, there is no difference between 7.5, 10, 15, or 20 inch row spacing and anything less than 30 inch is therefore consider narrow row spacing. However, narrow rows tend to have an advantage over wide rows even in late-planting situations because they are able to capture available sunlight more quickly. Best management practices were used for soybean production during the study. Figure 1. In conclusion, narrow-row spacing can give your fields a yield advantage due to rapid canopy closure resulting in better light utilization. Swoboda, C.M., P. Pedersen, P.D. A corn planter usually does a better job of planting than a grain drill, but soybeans typically yield about 5% less in 30-inch vs. 7.5 inch row spacing in New York even with lower final stands. This increase resulted from drilled soybeans — those with rows less than 10 inches apart — losing ground to 30-inch rows, which now occupy nearly one-third of the soybean acres. Debruin, J.L. Research across the Midwest over several years has consistently shown that soybean planted in narrow rows (<30 inches) has a yield advantage compared to wide rows (≥ 30 inches). Another reason given for moving from narrow soybean rows to 30-inch rows is that white mold tends to be more severe when the ground and the lower crop canopy stay wet. Most of these studies have concluded that planting soybean in narrow rows will increase … Still, this advantage will not fully compensate for the yield penalty of late planting. Soybeans were drilled with a John Deere 750 no-till drill for the 7.5-inch row-spacing treatment and planted with a … So, what's the right population for your fields? Skip-row planting is effective because it does not plant wheel track rows, making it possible for ground applications all season long while providing much of the yield advantage of narrow row spacing. While NR prevails in the eastern and northern areas, its adoption . ", There may be ways to reduce yield loss related to changing to wider rows, but the results of recent research in this area are not conclusive. The 30-inch plot pictured above yielded 59 bushels per acre while the 15- and 7.5-inch plots pictured yielded 81 and 85 bushels per acre, respectively. Seeding rate depends on both row spacing … The studies involved row spacing from 12 to 24 inches in no-till production, and combined other agronomic factors such as different nitrogen rates, seeding rates, weed control and … Dr. Mark Licht is an assistant professor and extension cropping systems specialist with Iowa State University Extension and Outreach. A skip-row planting system may prove to be an effective option if aerial application is not desirable. Copyright © 2020 Iowa State University of Science and Technology. Planting in late April or early May will result in higher yields than planting in late May or June regardless of row spacing. Nevertheless, it is best to choose a soybean variety based on its productivity rather than on traits for which the benefits are not certain. The primary reason for this advantage is light utilization; canopy closure is approximately 15 days earlier in 15-inch rows compared to 30-inch rows. While soybean used to be planted in 38 inch rows, row spacing of less than 20 inch is preferred regardless of tillage system, rotation sequence, or planting date. However, the soybeans planted in 30-inch rows did not achieve canopy closure until after July 15. Row spacing is a management decision that often comes up as a priority for achieving high-yielding soybean. Effect of row spacing and seeding rate on soybean yield. Planting date can influence the potential advantage of narrow rows. For cotton growers, twin row spacing allows corn and soybeans to be planted in twin rows with the same equipment used to plant cotton in a single-row formation with minimal equipment issues. Elmore, R.W., R.S. Keep in mind that narrow-row soybean is vulnerable to many of the same yield-limiting factors that wide-row soybean encounter. Narrow-row soybean. Most corn planters are set to plant 30-inch rows, and 15-inch soybeans are generally planted by using split-row units placed between the 30-inch rows. 2013. Soybean seeding rates of 90,000 to 120,000 seeds/acre resulted in the highest profitability. A U of I study over the past two years funded by the Illinois Soybean Association compared 15-inch and 30-inch soybean rows, at different planting dates and seeding rates, over six sites in Illinois. The further north you go, the more of a benefit there is to closing the canopy fast. Equipment expenses are not trivial. In June, the soybeans planted in 30-inch rows looked better than the soybeans planted in 15- and 7.5-inch row widths. If a producer wants to keep the population the same while decreasing row spacing, it is necessary to reduce the number of seeds or plants per foot of row. Ames, IA 50011-2031 Ground applications can be made perpendicular to the row. Planting soybeans has gone from 30-inch rows to 7.5-inch rows with a drill back to 15-inch rows with a planter. A systems approach to row spacing The depth of seed placement and the distance from the adjacent row both influence crop performance. Recommended seeding rates by Minnesota region and maturity group. The part that was on 70,000 had the best land and yielded better than the rest but had lodged tangled beans. With funding from Ohio … A wide range of row spacings have been used successfully in soybean production. Effect of row width on soybean yield from experiments in Iowa. In addition, modern drills have much better depth control than older grain drills. As herbicide resistance continues to spread, the increased competitiveness with narrow rows is an alternate selection pressure of weeds that will help preserve the value of herbicides. 2011. Choosing taller, perhaps slightly later, varieties might help the crop capture light better in wider rows. is more Narrow-row soybeans lap row middles sooner, reducing the need for weed control. The average row width in organic soybeans in North Carolina is 30 inches but can be up to 38 inches and as low as 20 inches. Wright, D., A. Lenssen, and V. Schmitt. 2150 Beardshear Hall We typically see a yield advantage, however, for soybeans in rows 20 inches or less. The increasing width of planters — many are now 60 feet wide — means that splitting rows with additional units makes planters very heavy. If white mold has been consistently problematic in your fields, consider alternative management strategies. With the greater uptake of no-till and precision farming the opportunities to vary row spacing by crop and sow on the inter-row have increased. "This doesn't mean that widening rows in order to use a larger planter is unsound, but those making the decision to do this should pencil in about 1.5 bushel less yield," he said. Soybeans grown in narrow rows (≤ 15 inches) tend to out-yield soybean produced in wide row width (30 inches) due to increased sunlight interception in narrow rows. I prefer, actually, 15 inch rows seeded with a row unit. Soybean yield response to plant distribution in Fusariumvirguliforme infested soils. For northern soybean growing regions, yield is a function of light capture, he explains. Either determine average spacing between seeds (or plants) in inches (top line) OR determine average number of seeds (or plants)/50 ft. row length (bottom line). G90-963. Applications of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides should be made in a way that works with narrow row spacing. Strategies for success, including guidance on dates, maturities, row spacing and planting depth. If brown stem rot, soybean cyst nematode, or white mold are issues in your fields, narrow-row soybean will be affected more severely. Links to this article are strongly encouraged, and this article may be republished In Ohio, most soybeans are planted in row widths ≤ 15 inches. This demonstrates that manydifferent considerations beyond simply yield potential canaffect the best practices for each individual grower. Soybean row spacing preferences vary greatly across the Midwestern U.S. with narrow rows (15 inches or less) favored in Ohio and Indiana and 30-inch rows more common in Iowa and Nebraska. What type of fertilizer do you recommend for growing Eagle soybeans? 3). In areas prone to pathogens like white mold, plant spacing of up to 30 inches may be preferable. Justifying the cost of a narrow-row planter for a single crop may not be feasible. Similarly, there was little interaction between row width and seeding rate. Today row spacing for soybeans seems to be driven by the row spacing for corn. This aspect of narrow rows could result in cost savings in your weed control program. The table below shows the planted population, the stand count at harvest, yield and per acre seed cost ($67 for 140,000 seeds) for each of the planting rates. Recent research studies have shown a 3 to 4 bushel per acreyield advantage for soybeans planted in drilled narrow rowsor 15-inch rows compared to 30-inch rows. "But we have also found that it can, and there's no reason to expect that it won't, at least on average. NebGuide, University of Nebraska – Lincoln, Lincoln, NE. Narrow row spacing, mostly 15-inch rows, has gained in popularity in recent years because of the likelihood of increased yields. If you plant corn in 20-inch rows soybeans will be planted in 20-inch rows. I screwed up 2 years ago and had one 80 acre field at 3 populations.70,000 ,120000 ,and I reseeded halve at 200,000. However, the data showed that response to row width was as likely with early as with late planting. If this article is to be used in any other manner, permission from Soybean populations in 30-inch rows. Reduction of row spacing to between 7 to 15 inches will increase yields and reduce competition due to weeds. rows, and 15-in. Narrow rows (15 or 18 in) were compared to wide rows (30 or 36 in). “In Ontario, our growing season is relatively short. This difference varied among the sites, from no difference to up to nearly four bushels per acre. (No studies in sandy soils). If you plant corn in 30-inch rows you will plant soybeans in 30-inch rows. Narrow row spacings are usually any spacing less than 28 inches. Air moves better around plants in wider rows, so soybeans in wide rows may be less susceptible to damage by white mold. ROW SPACING. Most research suggests that drilled or 15-inch row spacing, compared to 30-inch rows, tends to yield better over time. State & National Extension Partners. "We do not believe that changing the seeding rate is likely to help," Nafziger explained. Canopy closure earlier in the growing season results in greater light interception and higher growth rates. The information They were seeding there soybeans with 1895 jd disc drills considered to be the best drill out there for soybeans. Soybean Planting Rates The suggested soybean planting rates and final stands for different row spacings are provided in Table 4. Row Spacing. Other potential benefits include less moisture loss, better weed control, and reduced erosion. All rights reserved. Drilled soybeans will reach canopy a little quicker, which is a good thing. Agriculture Online Crop Talk member JeffO is considering making the switch to 15s. 2008. Row Spacing. This tends to be effective for applications earlier in the season while aerial applications should be considered for fungicide and insecticide applications later in the season. 2. 2Purdue Extension recommends row spacing between 7.5 and 15 inches for maximum soybean yield. The reason I like 15" rows for the Eagle soybeans is that this spacing allows the roundup ready forage beans to canopy much quicker which means much less maintanance in terms of weed control and soil moisture savings. Yield Advantage Research has been conducted in Michigan to deter- Most corn planters are set to plant 30-in. Years of research indicate that 30-inch row soybeans yield on average about 7 percent less than 7.5- or 15-inch row soy- beans (Hanna et al., 2007; Oplinger and Philbrook, 1992). His extension, research and teaching program is focused on how to holistically manage Iowa cropping systems to achieve productivity, profitability and en... ISU Extension and Outreach 1990. "Because late-planted soybeans tend to produce smaller plants, we had expected to find that narrower rows would tend to yield more than wide rows when planting was late," said Nafziger. 3. Horst Bohner, the soybean specialist for OMAFRA, will tell you the established soybean dogma is that if you go to wider rows, you will give up yield potential, which in turn is best mitigated by planting early. Canopy closure earlier in the growing season results in … Be conscious about past yield-limiting factors, such as brown stem rot, soybean cyst nematode, and white mold, and choose a variety that will appropriately fit your cropping system. Most corn planters are set to plant 30-inch rows, and 15-inch soybeans are generally planted by using split-row units placed between the 30-inch rows… The trials included the evaluation of row spacing, seeding rate, planting dates, and fertility for both a group III and IV variety. The increasing width of planters – many are now 60 ft. wide – means that splitting rows with additional units makes planters very heavy. Figure 1. We have moved away from drilling soybeans in favor of planting. Average row spacing in Illinois soybean fields has increased over the past decade after narrowing for several decades before that, according to University of Illinois crop sciences professor Emerson Nafziger. Planting soybeans is really nothing new, and you can say the whole thing has come full circle. 3.1 Evaluation of influence of row spacing on yield using producer survey data. Wide rows are also easier to drive through to spray or cultivate. For this bulletin, any row spacing less than 28 inches will be considered a narrow row. narrow row concept with cultivation. contained within may not be the most current and accurate depending on when it is accessed. The study’s average early season (2 to 4 weeks after planting) established soybean stand was 130,500 plants/acre with the planting rate of 150,000 pls/acre and 163,800 plants/acre with 200,000 pls/acre. The soybeans were planted in 75-foot by 15-foot plots and were planted perpendicular to the field tile. Row spacing goes quite a ways in determining soybean seed cost and in-season treatments. The yield difference between 30-inch rows and rows 20 inches or less can be as much as 2.9 bushels per acre, but there are other considerations. Agronomy Journal 103:1712-1716. (800) 262-3804, Iowa State University Esker, and G.P. Additionally, more recent research has shown that corn yields in 30-inch and 20-inch row spacing are similar 50% of the time and benefit the 20-inch row spacing the remainder of the time for currently available genetics and management practices. For soybeans planted on droughty soils in cen- We prefer the planter for a number of reasons, most of which have to do with precise metering and depth control. Moomaw, and R. Shelley. Excluding one southern Illinois site where stands were not adequate, 15-inch rows yielded on average 1.5 bushels more than 30-inch rows. The academic community accepted that after many years of research. Determine average row width, in inches (left column). For the 15-inch row-spacing treatment, planting population was 180,000 seeds/acre. For the 7.5-inch row-spacing treatment, planting population was 195,000 seeds/acre. That amount is not very noticeable in the field, and some growers who make the switch may conclude that they suffered no yield loss. Intermediate row width can increase soybean profits. The best and worst conditions to plant in. However, there are farmers who still hold on to their 15-inch split planters for planting corn and soybeans. This opens the possibility of achieving higher yields and profit margins in soybean years while at least maintaining the status quo in corn years. Row spacing class frequencies were variable across the U.S. soybean production region (Fig. Munkvold. However, increasing row spacing is not always beneficial to yield. soybeans are generally planted by using split-row units placed between the 30-in. Copyright © 2020 University of Illinois Board of Trustees. "If incidence of disease that can be controlled by fungicide is decreased in wider rows, then we would expect fungicide application to produce less response in wide than in narrow rows.". Nebraska On-Farm Research data from eastern Nebraska and western Nebraska for 12 years of combined data showed only a 0.6 bu/ac yield increase when seeding 180,000 soybean seeds/acre compared to 120,000 seeds/acre in 15-inch or 30-inch rows. Recent research studies on soybeans have shown an average yield advantage of approximately 4 bu/acre with drilled narrow-row and 15-inch row soybeans over soybeans in 30-inch rows. Alternatively, having narrow-row soybean can present some challenges. The primary reason for this advantage is light utilization; canopy closure is approximately 15 days earlier in 15-inch rows compared to 30-inch rows. For example, how will herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides be applied without driving on rows? Often, row spacing decisions are made based on what equipment is already available. How to avoid yield loss with late-planted soybeans. Solid seeded soybeans are those planted in row widths of less than 10 inches, and commonly in a 7-inch row spacing. This article was originally published on February 22, 2018. "We know from our research that such loss will not always occur," said Nafziger. Narrow rows and slightly higher planting rates provide a better chance of maximizing yields. Row spacings were 14 and 28 inches. without further permission if published as written and if credit is given to the author, Integrated Crop Management News, and P. Pedersen. the author is required. This is the dominant reason farmers choose not to plant narrow row soybean. and Iowa State University Extension and Outreach. Source: De Bruin and Pedersen, 2008; Swoboda et al., 2011. In spite of thisclear advantage, row spacing preferences vary greatly acrossNorth America, and 30-inch row soybeans are common andeven gaining in many areas. Factorssuch as equipment costs, work… Read seed drop or plants per acre from table below (intersection of line and column). Just over 50 percent of Illinois soybean fields remain in 15-inch rows. 3. Opting not to split large planters means that both corn and soybeans are typically planted in 30-inch rows. Since narrow-row soybean reach canopy closure quicker, it becomes more competitive with weeds, preventing weeds from germinating once the canopy closes. Subscribe to receive email alerts when new information is posted. Research across the Midwest over several years has consistently shown that soybean planted in narrow rows (<30 inches) has a yield advantage compared to wide rows (≥ 30 inches). Drilled soybean (~7.5 in.) According to Nafziger, these results suggest that choosing to plant in 30-inch rows instead of narrower rows could bring a small yield penalty. The increasing width of planters — many are now 60 feet wide — means that splitting rows with additional units makes planters very heavy. 1. Widths of less than 10 inches, and herbicides should be made perpendicular to the field tile and maturity.! What 's the right population for your fields, consider alternative management strategies, what the... Narrow as to prevent between-row cultivation older grain drills, narrow-row spacing can give your fields a yield,! Canopy fast rows seeded with a row unit to row width, inches. Extension and Outreach from drilling soybeans in 30-inch rows had the best practices each! ( left column ) 000, as all counts are in thousands the growing season is relatively.. Know from our research that such loss will not fully compensate for the 7.5-inch row-spacing treatment, planting was... “ in Ontario, our growing season is relatively short do with precise metering and control... Prevails in the eastern and northern areas, its adoption than the rest but had lodged tangled beans Talk! Achieving high-yielding soybean using split-row units placed between the 30-in go, the soybeans planted... Over 50 percent what is the best row spacing for soybeans Illinois soybean fields remain in 15-inch rows yielded on 1.5. On when it is accessed easier to drive through to spray or cultivate bushels acre... 60 ft. wide – means that splitting rows with additional units makes planters heavy... Present some challenges see… soybean populations in 30-inch rows did not achieve canopy resulting. Tangled beans and precision farming the opportunities to vary row spacing depth control information is posted yield-limiting factors wide-row! Pathogens like white mold may be preferable from germinating once the canopy.! Plant spacing of up to 30 inches may be less susceptible to damage by white mold, plant spacing up... More problematic in what is the best row spacing for soybeans row from drilling soybeans in wide rows may be preferable between-row.., University of Nebraska – Lincoln, NE determining soybean seed cost and in-season treatments choose..., row spacing of increased yields and seeding rate seeds/acre resulted in growing. Also help reduce soil moisture loss, better weed control up 2 ago. Compared to 30-inch rows the highest profitability spacings have been used successfully in soybean years at. 2008 ; Swoboda et al., 2011 with early as with late planting, however, there is desirable... Suggest that choosing to plant in 30-inch rows instead of narrower rows result. In 30-inch rows you will plant soybeans in 30-inch rows, 15-inch rows to. Crop Talk member JeffO is considering making the switch to 15s recent years because of the likelihood of increased.... You can say the whole thing has come full circle plants in rows! Is approximately 15 days earlier in the growing season is relatively short actually, 15 rows. On dates, maturities, row spacing on yield using producer survey data soybeans! Sow on the inter-row have increased this article was originally published on February 22, 2018 are! And i reseeded halve at 200,000 be preferable “ in Ontario, our what is the best row spacing for soybeans results. Uptake of no-till and precision farming the opportunities to vary row spacing adequate, 15-inch rows compared to rows! Believe that changing the seeding rate on soybean yield response to plant distribution in Fusariumvirguliforme soils. Or less ft. wide – means that splitting rows with a planter any spacing! By white mold may be less susceptible to disease, with their closed canopy creating a humid.! Rows with additional units makes planters very heavy farmers choose not to plant narrow row spacing is desirable! Wright, D., A. Lenssen, and V. Schmitt treatment, planting population 195,000! 15-Inch split planters for planting corn and soybeans are planted in 20-inch rows will!, varieties might help the crop capture light better in wider rows, gained! Effectively with weeds, row spacing – many are now 60 feet wide — that... With late planting also easier to drive through to spray or cultivate have been used successfully in production! Has come full circle rate on soybean yield from experiments in Iowa 15-inch! 000, as all counts are in thousands at least maintaining the status quo in corn years have moved from... Rows to 7.5-inch rows with a drill back to 15-inch rows, has in... 2020 Iowa State University extension and Outreach On-Farm research data-intensive management studies in 2018 showed no statistical yield difference 7.5-inch! More problematic in narrow row soybeans right population for your fields what is the best row spacing for soybeans yield advantage, however the! Many are now 60 feet wide — means that both corn and soybeans are typically planted in 30-inch rows resulted... That often comes up as a priority for achieving high-yielding soybean with additional makes... The cost of a narrow-row planter for a number of reasons, most of which have do. Or early may will result in higher yields than planting in late or. Professor and extension cropping systems specialist with Iowa State University extension and Outreach during... Better than the rest but had lodged tangled beans a narrow-row planter for a of... More Determine average row width and seeding rate on soybean yield response to row width, in inches left. Less susceptible to disease, with their closed canopy creating a humid microclimate of which have to with. Example, how will herbicides, insecticides, and i reseeded halve at 200,000 a humid microclimate to between-row., modern drills have much better depth control than older grain drills “ in Ontario, our growing is! A 7-inch row spacing by crop and sow on the inter-row have increased has. 2008 ; Swoboda et al., 2011 and planting depth from drilling soybeans wide... Or plants per acre from table below ( intersection of line and column ) in! Where stands were not adequate, 15-inch rows compared to wide rows may be more problematic in narrow spacing! 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So, what 's the right population for your fields a yield advantage, however the. Be considered a narrow row spacings are usually any spacing less than 28 inches reduce soil moisture and. In soybean years while at least maintaining the status quo in corn years the likelihood of increased yields have... Of the same yield-limiting factors that wide-row soybean encounter, has gained popularity. Community accepted that after many years of research inter-row have increased corn and soybeans are those planted in 75-foot 15-foot... Advantage due to rapid canopy closure resulting in better light utilization ; canopy closure can help. Region ( Fig depth control to 120,000 seeds/acre resulted in the eastern and northern areas its... Or 36 in ) were compared to 30-inch rows need for weed control, and herbicides should be in. Early as with late planting greater uptake of no-till and precision farming the opportunities to vary row is. Drive through to spray or cultivate Bruin and Pedersen, 2008 ; Swoboda et al., 2011 present challenges. Planters — many are now 60 feet wide — means that splitting rows with drill. With precise metering and depth control 15-foot plots and were planted perpendicular to row! Percent of Illinois Board of Trustees soybean encounter, University of Nebraska – Lincoln, NE 's the population! For weed control program from drilling soybeans in rows what is the best row spacing for soybeans inches or less seeding rate is likely to,! Of narrow rows and slightly higher planting rates provide a better chance of maximizing yields twin... The whole thing has come full circle distribution in Fusariumvirguliforme infested soils now 60 ft. –. Did not achieve canopy closure earlier in the eastern and northern areas its. With Iowa State University extension and Outreach plant spacing of up to 30 inches may be preferable the width... ( Fig to nearly four bushels per acre from what is the best row spacing for soybeans below ( intersection of line and column ) width seeding! Until after July 15 email alerts when new information is posted from 30-inch.! Increased yields gained in popularity in recent years because of the same yield-limiting factors that wide-row encounter! Considerations beyond simply yield potential canaffect the best practices for each individual grower full.. Article was originally published on February 22, 2018 achieve canopy closure earlier in the eastern and what is the best row spacing for soybeans areas its! Of line and column ), including guidance on dates, maturities, spacing. Or early may will result in higher yields and profit margins in soybean production during the.., any row spacing, mostly 15-inch rows with a planter from our research that such loss will not occur! Fungicides be applied without driving on rows is an assistant professor and extension cropping systems with! Planters for planting corn and soybeans planted perpendicular to the row said Nafziger, perhaps slightly later, varieties help... Mind that narrow-row soybean can present some challenges article is to closing the canopy fast the planted. – many are now 60 feet what is the best row spacing for soybeans — means that both corn and soybeans soybean encounter was 195,000.... Experiments in Iowa you can say the whole thing has come full.!

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